UsurperRichard II is overthrown by Henry Bolingbroke. A move that is not generally supported by the Welsh aristocracy
Crowned PrinceOwain Glyndwr proclaimed Prince of Wales
Glyndwrs supporters (Plant Owain, the children of Owain) attack Ruthin,
Denbigh, Rhuddlan, Flint (where they attacked the English relieving
force), Holt, Oswestry and Welshpool
RetreatOutside Welshpool and the banks of the Vyrnwy an English force led by Hugh Burnell scatters the Welsh forces.
1st ExpeditionHenry IV's army diverted to Shrewbury on its way back from Scotland. It commences campaigning in North Wales
Heads Roll8 rebels executed
Glyndwr and other leading rebels are officially outlawed. Glyndwrs
estates are confiscated and granted to John Beaufort Earl of Somerset
ReturnHenry IV's army returns to Shrewbury
Scale DownEnglish relief force is disbanded and the Flint garrison scaled down
A winters taleOwain Glyndwr and his men have withdrawn to Snowdonia near Llyn Peris
Pardon offeredHenry IV offers to pardon all rebels except for Owain Glyndwr
Find Glyndwr!Spies are sent to Merionethshire, Llyn, Eifionydd to find Glyndwr
Judicial SessionsHotspurs judicial sessions allocate subsidies of 1000 marks to the communities of Caernarfonshire and Merionethshire
Conwy CapturedRhys ap Tudur and Gwilym ap Tudur capture Conwy Castle (to secure a pardon?)
Set backs...A band of Glyndwr's men are routed by Hotspur near Cader Idris then scattered by John Charlton Lord of Powys
Moving, keep on moving...Glyndwr moves his base of operations south to the Pumlumon uplands, just south of Machynlleth
& malefactors in Brecon / Rebellious villeins in Abergavenny /
Rebels in Powys / Assemblies of rebels in Carmarthenshire
Conwy ReturnedConway Castle handed back...after negotiation with Hotspur
Spies!Spies are sent to the uplands of Nant Conwy and Traeth Mawr
The Battle of HyddgenAn
anglo-flemish force of some 1500 men is raised in Pembrokeshire and the
surrounding areas and attacks Owain Glyndwr and his men on Mynydd
Hyddgen. Owain and his 500 or so men are taken by surprise and
surrounded,. Following lengthy fighting, Owain and his men attempt to
break out taking the attackers by surprise. The attackers take flight
and leave behind 200 of their own dead - Glyndwr is victorious!
Pardon!Rhys ap Tudur and Gwilym ap Tudur are pardoned - their co-conspirators are executed
Men of HarlechHarlech laid seige -- relief force sent from Chester
2nd ExpeditionHenry IV's 2nd expedition sets out to the Tywi valley and Strata Florida
Yes LieutenantThe Earl of Worcester is appointed Lieutenant of South Wales
GarrisonCastles are garrisoned -- especially Aberystwyth and Cardigan
Islands of calm in a sea of rebellionAmidst the mounting chaos Flintshire and lowland South Wales are relatively unaffected
Caernarfon ThreatenedOwain Glyndwr and his forces threaten Caernarfon and Castle
Battle of Tuthill???
Earl of Stafford and the Bishop of Saint Asaph are commissioned to
establish measures for the safe custody and good governance of North
Ruthin RaidedGlyndwr's men raid Ruthin and carry off spoils including cattle
AppointmentHotspur is appointed the Lieutenant of North Wales. Thomas Percy the Earl of Worcester is appointed Lieutenant of South Wales
Captive TakenReginald Grey is captured by Glyndwr's men in an ambush. It is possible that he was betrayed by his own household
Castles GarrisonedCastles are repaired (including Kidwelly and Monmouth) and garrisons are maintained (including Carreg Cennen)
Battle of Bryn Glas (Pilleth)Welsh forces led by Glyndwr himself beat the Herefordshire levy led by Edmund Mortimer who is captured (later to marry Glyndwr's daughter). This bloody victory (it is alleged that Welsh women mutilated the genitalia of the English dead) builds the reputation of the Welsh as a force not to be lightly dismissed. The site of the battle, in the southern marches is rings warning bells to the English.
Leominster fortifiedWalls and ditches are build around Leominster
Lieutenant of Carmarthenshire, Cardiganshire and BreconRichard Lord Grey of Codnor given military command of Carmarthenshire, Cardiganshire and Brecon
A new military orderTwo
new military commands are created along the English border -- in the
North under the Earl of Arundel and in the South under the Earl of
IncursionsThe Prince of
Wales leads a force to relieve Harlech and Caernarfon. The Earl of
Arundel leads his retinue into Wales. Henry IV leads a force from
Shrewsbury into North Wales, destroys Llanwrst Vill but is overwhelmed
by the weather and returns home dishevelled. To quote the Monk of
Evesham 'he returned home ingloriously'
Homildon HillPercy is victorious!
MarriageEdmund Mortimer marries Glyndwrs daughter
West Wales is a Welsh stronghold. The castles of Beaumaris, Caernarfon,
Harlech and Aberystwyth are isolated English outposts, frequently
beseiged and supplied by sea
InsurrectionPressure on the Shropshire march from Welsh rebels. Insurrection in Flintshire
Hope BurnsThe town of Hope in Cheshire burns at the hands of Welsh rebels
Prince Hal16 year old Prince Hal is made Lieutenant of Wales
Hal attacksSycarth and Glyndyfrdwy attacked by Prince Hal
and Aberystwyth in English hands are both under seige. Harlech is
relieved by a force of 1300 men of Chesire sent by Prince Hal
Garrison increasedRadnor garrison tripled to 70 men
The men of Tywi revolt 1Owain
Glyndwr leads his army down the Tywi valley, taking the castles of
(amongst others) Dryslwyn, Newcastle Emlyn and Carmarthen
Revolution!Hotspur revolts in Chester
The men of Tywi revolt 2Contingent of Glyndwr's army is defeated North of Carmarthen
The Battle of ShrewsburyHotspur and Thomas Percy Killed...
Cross border raidersThe
Welsh of Flintshire raid towns in Shropshire. They lay seige to Flint,
Rhuddlan and Hawarden. Fears arise that raids could be extended into
Chesire and Herefordshire
Welsh of Cydwdi and Carnwgllion mount an attack on Kidwelly castle.
Several Englishmen are killed. The same events occur again in October
Rebels hold CarmarthenGlyndwrs rebels have taken Carmarthen
The Kings CampaignHenry
IV leads a campaign. They take two weeks travelling from Brecon to
Carmarthen, where they stay for five days (and leave 550 men for a
month) then on to Hereford
Seige Season 1Cardiff castle is under seige. Forces from France and Brittany aid Henry Don in the seige of Kidwelly castle
Appointments 1Edward Duke of York (the Kings cousin) is appointed Lieutenant for South Wales for a year
Appointments 2Richard Earl of Warwick and John Lord Audley are appointed to control Brecon for a year
The French in the frayThe French attack Caernarfon from both land and sea
Seige season 2Aberystwyth,
Caernarfon, Beaumaris, Cardiff & Kidwelly are all under seige. The
French are involved at Kidwelly and Caernarfon
Parliament ProclaimsA meeting of parliament places military command of wales in the hands of the Prince of Wales
Powerful PrinceThe Prince of Wales is appointed Lieutenant in North Wales. He commands 500 men-at-arms and 3000 archers.
of Harlech Castle is captured. The Deputy Sheriff of Anglesey is
captured and his escort is killed. The men of upland Brecon agree to
submit to the King if he defeats the rebels in Glamorgan.
Welsh holdingsAberystwyth (Llanbadarn) & Harlech are in Welsh hands
Even more chaos...Raids, burnt villages & mills, cross border raiding...
DefeatThe Welsh are defeated at Grosmont
Order Order!A parliament is held at Machynlleth
Bonjour monsieur!A Welsh diplomatic mission is sent to France.
Let's be friendsA Franco-Welsh treaty is concluded.
Kidwelly roastedKidwelly town is captured and burnt
Run Run...!Welsh forces chase Englishmen to the gates of Monmouth.
Ahah Jim Lad!A naval force is assembled in France to establish a bridgehead
Welshmen begin to defect to Glyndwrs cause -- John Trefor Bishop of St
Asaph and Chamberlain of Chester & Lewis Byford Bishop of Bangor
Deployment2000 men are posted to seven key castles.
Oh No!The Welsh are defeated at Usk. Glyndwr's brother is killed and his son captured. His secretary is captured later in the month.
Sea-attackAnglesey is attacked from the sea by the Lieutenant of Ireland.
Scrope's rebellion in England is crushed. The Earl of Northumberland
and Lord Bardolf flee to Scotland (then to Wales in 1406).
Seige SeasonRhuddlan castle besieged by the Welsh
ChevaucheA French force arrives at Milford Haven, they chevauche to within 8 miles of Worcester.
SurrenderGwilym ap Gruffudd ap Gwilym and brothers Rhys and Robin along with four other Welshmen surrender at Chester.
Order Order OrderThe second Welsh parliament is held at Harlech castle.
Coety ReliefCoety castle is relieved by English forces. The men of pembrokeshire bribe the welsh with £200.
Castle PowerEnglish power is concentrated in the royal castles and large garrisons.
New arrivalsThe Earl of Northumberland and Earl Bardolf arrive in Wales
A French affairOwain Glyndwr ratifies an alliance with the French at Llanbadarn.
English force of 40 men-at-arms and 300 archers is dispatched by the
boat 'Nicolas of Dublin' from Wirral under the command of John
Mainwaring Sheriff of Chester and his brother Ralph to Beaumaris.
Prince of the PrincipalityThe
Prince of Wales is appointed lieutenant in North and South Wales and
given 5,000 men - he seems reluctant to puruse this task!
North Wales reinforcedCaernarfon's garrison is quadrupled and a naval force deployed to the Menai straits.
An ecclesiastical exodusWales'
ecclesiastical allegiance is transferred from the Roman Pope (supported
by the English) to the Avignonese Pope (supported by the French). The
vision was to establish an independant Welsh church and two
AmbushThe Scottish heir to the throne is captured and held by the English as a guarantor of Scottish diplomatic caution.
A royal guarantorHywel Gwynedd and his accomplices are ambushed and killed in Flintshire.
Victory on St Georges day1,000 Welshmen are killed in battle with the English.
Au RevoirThe remnant of the French forces leave.
A reversalEdward Charlton and a force from Shropshire trounce the Earl of Northumberland and Earl Bardolf
Men of FlintSeven leading men of Flintshire are given safe conduct to Chester to make submissions.
Deployment220 men posted to guard Anglesey. 60 soldiers guarding the Menai strait.
Show me the money!The Prince of Wales is given a new commission - less men / more money.
Enquires being heldOfficial
enquiries are being held in St Asaph, Rhuddlan, Holywell, Caerswys to
gather information on who had died in the revolt, their lands etc.
Submission2000 men of Anglesey submitted and tried.
DevastationCoelion in Dyffryn Clwyd is being devastated by Glyndwrs men.
Order in courtThe Anglesey county court has recommenced meeting.
Anglesey subduedJohn Mainwaring is appointed the military commander of Anglesey with a force of 100 men.
Trial and retribution1000
men of Flint appear before Gilbert Talbot and other justices at Flint
and agree to pay a large communal fine for their part in the rebellion.
6 monthsThe Prince of Wales contracted to serve in Wales for 6 months with 600 men-at-arms and 1800 archers.
Campaign suppliesThe Prince of Wales is given £7,000 to pursue his campaign.
Seige of AberystwythA
seige of Aberystwyth is prepared by the Welsh, Glyndwr takes control of
the castle amidst English bickering and lily-livered behaviour.
Talbot is given a force of 100 men-at-arms and 400 archers to tour
Caernarfonshire and Merionethshire to collect fines imposed at session.
Menai Guarded20 men-at-arms and 100 archers posted to Caernarfon to guard Menai straits.
Cardiganshire Guarded480 men posted at Strata Florida to police North Cardiganshire.
TruceEnglish and French form a truce.
Northumberland fallsThe Earl of Northumberland and his allies killed at the battle of Bramham moor.
Envoy to ParisTwo envoys are sent to Paris to appeal for help against the English.
rebels have ensconced themselves in the fastness of the Upper Conwy
valley, planning to ambush the Chamberlain of North Wales as he travels
Castles fallAberystwyth and Harlech castles fall to the English
Gam, a Breconshire land-owner who fought with the English during the
height of the rebellion, is captured and ransomed. Owain Glyndwr
recieves a large ransom. This is the last that is heard of Glyndwr